Skip to main content

TR Memescape

  • TalkRational: Why God made tag clouds.

Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - socrates1

1
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
This is a problem for the dino to bird theory since dinosaurs are completely different than birds.
So we need to look for an ancestor that is similar to the first birds.
Pterosaurs are similar to the first birds. Pterosaur as ancestor is consistent with the evidence of the study. That explains the "surprising" evidence.
The evidence is only surprising if you assume that birds evolved from dinosaurs. The evidence is not surprising if you assume that birds evolved from pterosaurs.
People will pretend not to get this. In fact the evidence from the study is exactly what the pterosaur to bird theory would predict. Not much point in discussing with folks who are pretending.
If anyone cares to go beyond pretending let me know. Otherwise I will leave it at that.
2
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
This is a problem for the dino to bird theory since dinosaurs are completely different than birds.
So we need to look for an ancestor that is similar to the first birds.
Pterosaurs are similar to the first birds. Pterosaur as ancestor is consistent with the evidence of the study. That explains the "surprising" evidence.
The evidence is only surprising if you assume that birds evolved from dinosaurs. The evidence is not surprising if you assume that birds evolved from pterosaurs.
3
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/avians.html
Quote
The first birds shared the following major skeletal characteristics with many coelurosaurian dinosaurs (especially those of their own clade, the Maniraptora, which includes Velociraptor):

Pubis (one of the three bones making up the vertebrate pelvis) shifted from an anterior to a more posterior orientation (see Saurischia), and bearing a small distal "boot".
Elongated arms and forelimbs and clawed manus (hands).
Large orbits (eye openings in the skull).
Flexible wrist with a semi-lunate carpal (wrist bone).
Hollow, thin-walled bones.
3-fingered opposable grasping manus (hand), 4-toed pes (foot); but supported by 3 main toes.
Reduced, posteriorly stiffened tail.
Elongated metatarsals (bones of the feet between the ankle and toes).
S-shaped curved neck.
Erect, digitgrade (ankle held well off the ground) stance with feet postitioned directly below the body.
Similar eggshell microstructure.
Teeth with a constriction between the root and the crown.
Functional basis for wing power stroke present in arms and pectoral girdle (during motion, the arms were swung down and forward, then up and backwards, describing a "figure-eight" when viewed laterally).
Expanded pneumatic sinuses in the skull.
Five or more vertebrae incorporated into the sacrum (hip).
Straplike scapula (shoulder blade).
Clavicles (collarbone) fused to form a furcula (wishbone).
Hingelike ankle joint, with movement mostly restricted to the fore-aft plane.
Secondary bony palate (nostrils open posteriorly in throat).
Possibly feathers... this awaits more study. Small, possibly feathered dinosaurs were recently found in China. It appears that many coelurosaurs were cloaked in an external fibrous covering that could be called "protofeathers."
How many of those characteristics are shared by pterosaurs?
Check the blog.
Let me repeat an important point concerning:
Quote
The first birds shared the following major skeletal characteristics with many coelurosaurian dinosaurs (especially those of their own clade, the Maniraptora, which includes Velociraptor)
The first birds shared skeletal characteristics with many Paravians. But Paravians are not dinosaurs.
I have made this point many, many times.
4
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/avians.html
Quote
The first birds shared the following major skeletal characteristics with many coelurosaurian dinosaurs (especially those of their own clade, the Maniraptora, which includes Velociraptor):

Pubis (one of the three bones making up the vertebrate pelvis) shifted from an anterior to a more posterior orientation (see Saurischia), and bearing a small distal "boot".
Elongated arms and forelimbs and clawed manus (hands).
Large orbits (eye openings in the skull).
Flexible wrist with a semi-lunate carpal (wrist bone).
Hollow, thin-walled bones.
3-fingered opposable grasping manus (hand), 4-toed pes (foot); but supported by 3 main toes.
Reduced, posteriorly stiffened tail.
Elongated metatarsals (bones of the feet between the ankle and toes).
S-shaped curved neck.
Erect, digitgrade (ankle held well off the ground) stance with feet postitioned directly below the body.
Similar eggshell microstructure.
Teeth with a constriction between the root and the crown.
Functional basis for wing power stroke present in arms and pectoral girdle (during motion, the arms were swung down and forward, then up and backwards, describing a "figure-eight" when viewed laterally).
Expanded pneumatic sinuses in the skull.
Five or more vertebrae incorporated into the sacrum (hip).
Straplike scapula (shoulder blade).
Clavicles (collarbone) fused to form a furcula (wishbone).
Hingelike ankle joint, with movement mostly restricted to the fore-aft plane.
Secondary bony palate (nostrils open posteriorly in throat).
Possibly feathers... this awaits more study. Small, possibly feathered dinosaurs were recently found in China. It appears that many coelurosaurs were cloaked in an external fibrous covering that could be called "protofeathers."
How many of those characteristics are shared by pterosaurs?
Check the blog.
5
Faid quotes an early error I made in comparing early birds to Compsognathus. I made that error because a great deal of the literature asserted that point and I accepted it because of that, before I looked into it myself. When I analyzed it myself I found it was wrong and have repeatedly corrected that initial error. Not worth arguing about.
6
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
This is a problem for the dino to bird theory since dinosaurs are completely different than birds.
So we need to look for an ancestor that is similar to the first birds.
Pterosaurs are similar to the first birds. Pterosaur as ancestor is consistent with the evidence of the study. That explains the "surprising" evidence.
7
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
This is a problem for the dino to bird theory since dinosaurs are completely different than birds.
So we need to look for an ancestor that is similar to the first birds.
9
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
This is a problem for the dino to bird theory since dinosaurs are completely different than birds.
10
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
If very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird then the ancestor must have been quite similar to the first birds.
11
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
I suggest that if "very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome", then very few changes were required in the evolution from bird ancestor to bird.
The non-coding regulatory sequences the study found, produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
12
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

The non-coding regulatory sequences produce the myriad differences (phenotypes) between different types of birds.
And
Quote
very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
13
As a sidenote notice that birds have ZERO overlap (on both dimensions) with the other taxa shown in Figure 1a.
https://media.springernature.com/m685/nature-assets/ncomms/2017/170206/ncomms14229/images/ncomms14229-f1.jpg
14
Someone earlier tried to pretend I misunderstood the study. It did not work then and it does not work now. I am not wasting time on that.
If this is usual, then why were they surprised? Face it, this is very unusual. But if someone knows better than these surprised scientists then give us your explanation.
Better yet, just admit you have no idea. 
If someone knows better than these surprised scientists then give us your explanation. Pretending I do not understand this subject does not cut it.
15
This study forces us to re-examine what is meant by a phenotype.
Quote
This result corroborates the above observation that very few [protein coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
AND
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression
16
Someone earlier tried to pretend I misunderstood the study. It did not work then and it does not work now. I am not wasting time on that.
If this is usual, then why were they surprised? Face it, this is very unusual. But if someone knows better than these surprised scientists then give us your explanation.
Better yet, just admit you have no idea. 
17
Quote
We were therefore surprised to observe, that the proportion of ASHCEs that lie within coding regions was ca. 50-fold lower (0.31%, Fig. 1c).
If this is usual, then why were they surprised? Face it, this is very unusual. But if someone knows better than these surprised scientists then give us your explanation.
Better yet, just admit you have no idea. 
18
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
Quote
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers.

The (surprising) evidence explains the phenotypes, but does it explain the "numerous evolutionary innovations"?

From the study:
Quote
This result implies that innovation of protein-coding genes might not play a large role in the processes underlying the transitions from dinosaur to the bird lineage.

This result corroborates the above observation that very few lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
Quote
The preferential targets of strong purifying selection are usually on protein-coding regions9, for example, 17.55% of HCEs lie within coding regions, some three-fold higher than the percentage of coding regions in whole genome (Fig. 1c). We were therefore surprised to observe, that the proportion of ASHCEs that lie within coding regions was ca. 50-fold lower (0.31%, Fig. 1c).
Notice that this is not 50% lower but 50 fold lower.
This is so far outside the usual that it calls for some kind of explanation.
If others here want a discussion why not start by offering up a possible explanation for this.
So no explanation as to why the avian situation is so outside the usual.
19
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
Quote
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers.

The (surprising) evidence explains the phenotypes, but does it explain the "numerous evolutionary innovations"?

From the study:
Quote
This result implies that innovation of protein-coding genes might not play a large role in the processes underlying the transitions from dinosaur to the bird lineage.

This result corroborates the above observation that very few lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
Quote
The preferential targets of strong purifying selection are usually on protein-coding regions9, for example, 17.55% of HCEs lie within coding regions, some three-fold higher than the percentage of coding regions in whole genome (Fig. 1c). We were therefore surprised to observe, that the proportion of ASHCEs that lie within coding regions was ca. 50-fold lower (0.31%, Fig. 1c).
Notice that this is not 50% lower but 50 fold lower.
This is so far outside the usual that it calls for some kind of explanation.
If others here want a discussion why not start by offering up a possible explanation for this.
20
Notice that there is no input from others.
Insults do not count.
21
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
Quote
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers.

The (surprising) evidence explains the phenotypes, but does it explain the "numerous evolutionary innovations"?

From the study:
Quote
This result implies that innovation of protein-coding genes might not play a large role in the processes underlying the transitions from dinosaur to the bird lineage.

This result corroborates the above observation that very few lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
Quote
The preferential targets of strong purifying selection are usually on protein-coding regions9, for example, 17.55% of HCEs lie within coding regions, some three-fold higher than the percentage of coding regions in whole genome (Fig. 1c). We were therefore surprised to observe, that the proportion of ASHCEs that lie within coding regions was ca. 50-fold lower (0.31%, Fig. 1c).
Notice that this is not 50% lower but 50 fold lower.
This is so far outside the usual that it calls for some kind of explanation.
22
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
Quote
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers.

The (surprising) evidence explains the phenotypes, but does it explain the "numerous evolutionary innovations"?

From the study:
Quote
This result implies that innovation of protein-coding genes might not play a large role in the processes underlying the transitions from dinosaur to the bird lineage.

This result corroborates the above observation that very few lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
Quote
The preferential targets of strong purifying selection are usually on protein-coding regions9, for example, 17.55% of HCEs lie within coding regions, some three-fold higher than the percentage of coding regions in whole genome (Fig. 1c). We were therefore surprised to observe, that the proportion of ASHCEs that lie within coding regions was ca. 50-fold lower (0.31%, Fig. 1c).
Notice that this is not 50% lower but 50 fold lower.
23
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
Quote
Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers.

The (surprising) evidence explains the phenotypes, but does it explain the "numerous evolutionary innovations"?

From the study:
Quote
This result implies that innovation of protein-coding genes might not play a large role in the processes underlying the transitions from dinosaur to the bird lineage.

This result corroborates the above observation that very few lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome, suggesting changes in non-coding regulatory sequences might play a more important role in the emergence of avian evolutionary innovations than the acquisition of novel protein-coding genes.
24
For reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cis-regulatory_element
Quote
CREs [Cis-regulatory elements] have an important evolutionary role. The coding regions of genes are often well conserved among organisms; yet different organisms display marked phenotypic diversity. It has been found that polymorphisms occurring within non-coding sequences have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression

For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed.
Regulatory genes "have a profound effect on phenotype by altering gene expression". So the regulatory genes for birds "generate phenotypic variance".

And
Quote
very few [protein-coding] lineage-specific genes emerged in the avian genome
25
What an odd comment. I have not said anything about what the evidence implies or does not imply.
What does the (surprising) evidence imply?