Skip to main content

TR Memescape

  • TalkRational: Graeco-Roman western linear reductionist systematized fragmented disconnected parts-oriented individualized culture.

Topic: How humans became so smart (Read 451 times) previous topic - next topic

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.
  • socrates1
How humans became so smart
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
How humans became so smart: Huge dose of the 'feel-good' chemical dopamine may be responsible for our intelligence
Quote
It's a chemical known to play a key role in pleasure and reward, and now it seems that dopamine may also play a part in human intelligence.
A new study has found that the dopamine system evolved differently in humans than it did in great apes.
The researchers found that humans have a generous supply of dopamine in the brain regions that help us think and plan - which could explain why we are more intelligent than other primates.



  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #1
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
How humans became so smart: Huge dose of the 'feel-good' chemical dopamine may be responsible for our intelligence
Quote
It's a chemical known to play a key role in pleasure and reward, and now it seems that dopamine may also play a part in human intelligence.
A new study has found that the dopamine system evolved differently in humans than it did in great apes.
The researchers found that humans have a generous supply of dopamine in the brain regions that help us think and plan - which could explain why we are more intelligent than other primates.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6366/1027
Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage
Quote
Abstract
To better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains. Integration with human single-cell transcriptomic data revealed global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories. We validated and further characterized the human specificity of genes enriched in distinct cell types through histological and functional analyses, including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex. Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
  • Last Edit: November 24, 2017, 08:04:00 AM by socrates1

  • Faid
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #2
The self-quoting thing is getting wose, isn't it?
Who even made the rule that we cannot group ducks and fish together for the simple reason that they are both aquatic? If I want to group them that way and it serves my purpose then I can jolly well do it however I want to and it is still a nested hierarchy and you can't tell me that it's not.

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #3
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
How humans became so smart: Huge dose of the 'feel-good' chemical dopamine may be responsible for our intelligence
Quote
It's a chemical known to play a key role in pleasure and reward, and now it seems that dopamine may also play a part in human intelligence.
A new study has found that the dopamine system evolved differently in humans than it did in great apes.
The researchers found that humans have a generous supply of dopamine in the brain regions that help us think and plan - which could explain why we are more intelligent than other primates.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6366/1027
Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage
Quote
Abstract
To better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains. Integration with human single-cell transcriptomic data revealed global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories. We validated and further characterized the human specificity of genes enriched in distinct cell types through histological and functional analyses, including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex. Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
Quote
Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
It looks like there are "diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels".
As well as "including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex."


  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #4
Quote
including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striatum
Quote
The striatum is divided into ventral and dorsal subdivisions, based upon function and connections.
The ventral striatum is composed of the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle.[4][8] The nucleus accumbens is made up of the nucleus accumbens core and nucleus accumbens shell, which differ by neuron populations. The olfactory tubercle receives input from the olfactory bulb but has not been shown to play a role in processing smell.[8] In non-primate species, the islands of Calleja are included.[9] The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior.[10][11]

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #5
Quote
The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior.[10][11]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithalamus
Quote
The function of the epithalamus is to connect the limbic system to other parts of the brain. Some functions of its components include the secretion of melatonin and secretion of hormones from pituitary gland by the pineal gland (involved in circadian rhythms), and regulation of motor pathways and emotions.

The epithalamus comprises the habenular trigone, the pineal gland, and the habenular commissure. It is wired with the limbic system and basal ganglia.
  • Last Edit: November 24, 2017, 10:20:23 AM by socrates1

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #6
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limbic_system
Quote
The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction.[4] Emotional life is largely housed in the limbic system, and it has a great deal to do with the formation of memories.

The limbic system is often classified as a "cerebral structure". This structure is closely linked to olfaction, emotions, drives, autonomic regulation, memory, and pathologically to encephalopathy, epilepsy, psychotic symptoms, cognitive defects.[12] The functional relevance of the limbic system has proven to serve many different functions such as affects/emotions, memory, sensory processing, time perception, attention, consciousness, instincts, autonomic/vegetative control, and actions/motor behavior.

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #7
Quote
The limbic system is also tightly connected to the prefrontal cortex. Some scientists contend that this connection is related to the pleasure obtained from solving problems.

Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #8
This is kind of amazing
Love is like a magic penny
 if you hold it tight you won't have any
if you give it away you'll have so many
they'll be rolling all over the floor

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #9
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
Quote
KEY FINDINGS
In the study, the researchers evaluated 247 samples of brain tissue from five macaque monkeys, five chimpanzees and six humans.
In particular, the researchers looked at which genes were turned on or off in 16 regions of the brain.
In most places, differences between the species were hardly noticeable.
But in the neocortex, a region involved in processing memories and language, and striatum, a region involved in making decisions, the researchers found stark differences.
The team found that two enzymes called tyrosine hydroxylase and DOPA decarboxylase, which are involved in the production of dopamine, had elevated activity in the human brain.
The researchers found that 1.5 per cent of the neurons in the human striatum were making dopamine - three times more than in the ape striatum.
While dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure and reward, it's also known to play a role in aspects of cognition and behaviour, such as working memory, reasoning, reflective exploratory behaviour, and overall intelligence.


  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #10
borealis tells me he does not understand the point of this thread. So be it.
Not worth arguing about.
  • Last Edit: November 24, 2017, 03:23:10 PM by socrates1

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #11
https://www.dnalc.org/view/812-The-Dopamine-System.html
Quote
The dopamine system is basically a group of nerve cells, most of which originate in the midbrain. They send their axons to the forebrain, to different parts of the forebrain, where they plug into particular functions. Now, I would say, to simplify things, that there are three main branches of this forebrain dopamine system. There's a branch that goes all the way to the frontal cortex, where it modulates cognitive function and enhances the efficiency of certain forms of thinking and working memory. There is a very famous branch which goes to a structure called the striatum, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here dopamine is involved in facilitating movements. So in Parkinson's disease, when you lose dopamine, your movements become rigid and rather reduced in number and amplitude. The third important branch of the dopamine system is that it goes to structures in the limbic system of the brain, which is the emotional center of the brain, including the nucleus accumbens, which has often been called the reward center. Many drugs of abuse exert their effects indirectly or sometimes directly through this reward dopamine system. In general, I think that the dopamine system may work as one thing. It may work to prepare you for thinking, for movement, and for reward. And that's its main function. It functions in anticipation of behavioral and cognitive output.

  • SkepticTank
  • Global Moderator
  • Calmer than you are
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #12
This is kind of amazing
It's definitely something.

  • Fenrir
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #13
Hey Socrates, she said "dopiness", not "dopamine". It wasn't a compliment.

Not to worry, it's an easy mistake, anyone could make it, right?
It's what plants crave.

  • Fenrir
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #14
Course it could have been "dopey man" or "dippy mind". Hard to know for sure, gets so noisy in the Quicky Mart.
  • Last Edit: November 24, 2017, 04:57:46 PM by Fenrir
It's what plants crave.

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #15
https://www.dnalc.org/view/812-The-Dopamine-System.html
Quote
The dopamine system is basically a group of nerve cells, most of which originate in the midbrain. They send their axons to the forebrain, to different parts of the forebrain, where they plug into particular functions. Now, I would say, to simplify things, that there are three main branches of this forebrain dopamine system. There's a branch that goes all the way to the frontal cortex, where it modulates cognitive function and enhances the efficiency of certain forms of thinking and working memory. There is a very famous branch which goes to a structure called the striatum, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here dopamine is involved in facilitating movements. So in Parkinson's disease, when you lose dopamine, your movements become rigid and rather reduced in number and amplitude. The third important branch of the dopamine system is that it goes to structures in the limbic system of the brain, which is the emotional center of the brain, including the nucleus accumbens, which has often been called the reward center. Many drugs of abuse exert their effects indirectly or sometimes directly through this reward dopamine system. In general, I think that the dopamine system may work as one thing. It may work to prepare you for thinking, for movement, and for reward. And that's its main function. It functions in anticipation of behavioral and cognitive output.

Will be leaving this shortly.

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #16
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
Quote
KEY FINDINGS
In the study, the researchers evaluated 247 samples of brain tissue from five macaque monkeys, five chimpanzees and six humans.
In particular, the researchers looked at which genes were turned on or off in 16 regions of the brain.
In most places, differences between the species were hardly noticeable.
But in the neocortex, a region involved in processing memories and language, and striatum, a region involved in making decisions, the researchers found stark differences.
The team found that two enzymes called tyrosine hydroxylase and DOPA decarboxylase, which are involved in the production of dopamine, had elevated activity in the human brain.
The researchers found that 1.5 per cent of the neurons in the human striatum were making dopamine - three times more than in the ape striatum.
While dopamine is best known for its role in pleasure and reward, it's also known to play a role in aspects of cognition and behaviour, such as working memory, reasoning, reflective exploratory behaviour, and overall intelligence.
"But in the neocortex, a region involved in processing memories and language, and striatum, a region involved in making decisions, the researchers found stark differences."

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #17
Quote
including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striatum
Quote
The striatum is divided into ventral and dorsal subdivisions, based upon function and connections.
The ventral striatum is composed of the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle.[4][8] The nucleus accumbens is made up of the nucleus accumbens core and nucleus accumbens shell, which differ by neuron populations. The olfactory tubercle receives input from the olfactory bulb but has not been shown to play a role in processing smell.[8] In non-primate species, the islands of Calleja are included.[9] The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior.[10][11]
The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #18
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
How humans became so smart: Huge dose of the 'feel-good' chemical dopamine may be responsible for our intelligence
Quote
It's a chemical known to play a key role in pleasure and reward, and now it seems that dopamine may also play a part in human intelligence.
A new study has found that the dopamine system evolved differently in humans than it did in great apes.
The researchers found that humans have a generous supply of dopamine in the brain regions that help us think and plan - which could explain why we are more intelligent than other primates.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6366/1027
Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage
Quote
Abstract
To better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains. Integration with human single-cell transcriptomic data revealed global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories. We validated and further characterized the human specificity of genes enriched in distinct cell types through histological and functional analyses, including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex. Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
Quote
Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
It looks like there are "diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels".
As well as "including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex."

In other words it is not just the presence of additional dopamine.

  • Faid
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #19
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5113687/Is-smarter-chimps.html
How humans became so smart: Huge dose of the 'feel-good' chemical dopamine may be responsible for our intelligence
Quote
It's a chemical known to play a key role in pleasure and reward, and now it seems that dopamine may also play a part in human intelligence.
A new study has found that the dopamine system evolved differently in humans than it did in great apes.
The researchers found that humans have a generous supply of dopamine in the brain regions that help us think and plan - which could explain why we are more intelligent than other primates.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6366/1027
Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage
Quote
Abstract
To better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains. Integration with human single-cell transcriptomic data revealed global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories. We validated and further characterized the human specificity of genes enriched in distinct cell types through histological and functional analyses, including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex. Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
Quote
Our integrated analysis of the generated data revealed diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels, with relevance for brain function and disease.
It looks like there are "diverse molecular and cellular features of the phylogenetic reorganization of the human brain across multiple levels".
As well as "including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex."


Not to mention "global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories".

And we know that because the authors "performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains".

And they did that because they wanted to "better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates".

Gee, mindless source-quoting is fun!
Who even made the rule that we cannot group ducks and fish together for the simple reason that they are both aquatic? If I want to group them that way and it serves my purpose then I can jolly well do it however I want to and it is still a nested hierarchy and you can't tell me that it's not.

  • Faid
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #20
https://www.dnalc.org/view/812-The-Dopamine-System.html
Quote
The dopamine system is basically a group of nerve cells, most of which originate in the midbrain. They send their axons to the forebrain, to different parts of the forebrain, where they plug into particular functions. Now, I would say, to simplify things, that there are three main branches of this forebrain dopamine system. There's a branch that goes all the way to the frontal cortex, where it modulates cognitive function and enhances the efficiency of certain forms of thinking and working memory. There is a very famous branch which goes to a structure called the striatum, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease. Here dopamine is involved in facilitating movements. So in Parkinson's disease, when you lose dopamine, your movements become rigid and rather reduced in number and amplitude. The third important branch of the dopamine system is that it goes to structures in the limbic system of the brain, which is the emotional center of the brain, including the nucleus accumbens, which has often been called the reward center. Many drugs of abuse exert their effects indirectly or sometimes directly through this reward dopamine system. In general, I think that the dopamine system may work as one thing. It may work to prepare you for thinking, for movement, and for reward. And that's its main function. It functions in anticipation of behavioral and cognitive output.

Will be leaving this shortly.
:wave:
Who even made the rule that we cannot group ducks and fish together for the simple reason that they are both aquatic? If I want to group them that way and it serves my purpose then I can jolly well do it however I want to and it is still a nested hierarchy and you can't tell me that it's not.

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #21
Faid is underestimating himself. The quote he gave is certainly not mindless:
"global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories".
It is a good expression at the heart of this study.

  • VoxRat
  • wtactualf
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #22
Faid is underestimating himself. The quote he gave is certainly not mindless:
"global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories".
It is a good expression at the heart of this study.
You misunderstand.
Faid did not say the quoted words were mindless.
He simply pointed out that  retyping them (or re-c&p-ing them) for no apparent reason was mindless.
The authors expressed themselves perfectly clearly.
A parrot repeating their words verbatim doesn't really add anything.
"I understand Donald Trump better than many people because I really am a lot like him." - Dave Hawkins

  • socrates1
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #23
Time to go. VoxRat and Faid have started their silly prattle. Not worth arguing about.
I have brought this study to people's attention. That is enough.

  • VoxRat
  • wtactualf
Re: How humans became so smart
Reply #24
I have brought this study to people's attention. That is enough.
Exactly.
"I understand Donald Trump better than many people because I really am a lot like him." - Dave Hawkins