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Topic: Status of disease eradication programs (Read 401 times) previous topic - next topic

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  • uncool
Status of disease eradication programs
Polio eradication:
22 wild cases, 96 vaccine-derived cases in 2017, down from an estimated 400,000 in 1980. Only four countries currently have cases: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, and the DRC.

Dracunculiasis eradication:
30 cases in 2017, down from nearly a million in 1989. Only two countries currently have cases: Ethiopia and Chad.

We're surprisingly close to getting rid of two major infectious diseases.

  • meepmeep
  • Administrator
  • zombiecat queen
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #1
Cool, this will make up for all of the emerging diseases right around the corner and all of the disease surprises climate change has in store for us. :v:

Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #2
I had a fairly stark reminder of how far we've come in combating polio- I was working in the Iron Lung collection a couple of days ago. We have this, "Smith-Clarke 'Baby' cabinet respirator". That's an iron lung for infants. Hospitals used to have dozens of them. People nowadays have no clue about this sort of thing.
Why do I bother?

  • MSG
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #3
Back in the 70s a guy used to visit our farm whose father was in an iron lung
braying among the ruins

  • SR-71
  • Schmewbie
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #4
I guess we could shoehorn this in here.  Therapy, cure, or something, for reversing arteriosclerosis.  Works in mice, may work in people.

http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2018/03/22/vascular-aging-mice-study

Quote
On the potential for the study's results to translate to humans

"I'm quite optimistic with this one, because our blood vessels work the same way as in mice. This isn't a complicated disease like Alzheimer's. And so I think that actually I'd be surprised if there isn't some benefit in people. Of course the challenge is to make a drug, and we have to make sure it's super safe, but we're already doing human studies over the road from my lab at Harvard. And so far it looks really good."

Go forth and eat you a Twinkie, people.

  • SkepticTank
  • Global Moderator
  • Calmer than you are
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #5
When are we gonna start using CRISPR to fix genetic diseases like... oh, I don't know.... Tuberous Sclerosis?

I heard on NPR today that there are only 10 human studies currently underway, and 9 of them are in China.

Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #6
When are we gonna start using CRISPR to fix genetic diseases like... oh, I don't know.... Tuberous Sclerosis?

I heard on NPR today that there are only 10 human studies currently underway, and 9 of them are in China.

Yes it seems the Chinese have no difficulty finding subjects for their human studies.
Where are the damn balloons?

  • Monad
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #7
96 vaccine derived cases?

  • uncool
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #8
96 vaccine derived cases?
Some of the vaccines used an attenuated but live virus, both because it makes administering the vaccine easier and because in some cases it can be more potent. There is a standard process - use the live vaccine when there are too many cases to handle otherwise, step down to the inactivated version (i.e. one where the virus has been killed) when the spread is under control, and eventually stop giving the vaccine after its eradication has been confirmed.
  • Last Edit: March 25, 2018, 02:07:48 PM by uncool

  • Monad
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #9
I know about attenuated vaccines, that just seems to be rather a lot of cases (over 4x the wild version). Surely they should not be as severe?

  • uncool
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #10
I know about attenuated vaccines, that just seems to be rather a lot of cases (over 4x the wild version). Surely they should not be as severe?
Looks like that was usually the case; there seems to have been a major outbreak in Syria (74 of the cases, all vaccine-derived).

  • meepmeep
  • Administrator
  • zombiecat queen
Re: Status of disease eradication programs
Reply #11
The other cases were all in DRC.

What happens is the attenuated virus can still replicate in the intestine and is still shed in feces. It just can't penetrate the nervous system and cause the typical neurological signs. If you have a successful eradication program that's working well and have a certain level of community level protection, this sort of thing is unlikely to happen. But if a few vaccinated people are shedding the attenuated virus and if a lot of unvaccinated, unprotected people are coming into contact with it, there's a chance the virus could reacquire virulence and gain the ability to cause neurological signs again.